Who guards the guardians? Civil Military Relations during the Era of Benazir Bhutto’s First Premiership 1988-1990

  • nayyer abbas GC University Lahore


This study focuses the era of Benazir Bhutto’s first premiership (1988-1990) in context of the role of non-political forces which caused political government's subsequent collapse. The study enhancing the existing insights into the civil-military relations [hereafter CMR] during the period and traces that the collapse of Benazir Bhutto’s political government was due to the systematic crisis which grows as a result of tension between the civil and military institutions. The constitutional check on the civilian government in the form of eighth amendment in the constitution of Pakistan 1973 [which was introduced to facilitate, perpetuate and legitimize the role of non-political forces in Pakistan’s politics] have contributed to conflicting civil-military relations during the period. This study also highlights political maneuvering of non-political forces in post-Zia Pakistan (1988-1990) which had enormous bearing on the later political developments.