• Umber Bin Ibad Forman Christan College (FC College)
Keywords: Shrines, Sufism, Traditions, State, Auqaf


This article intends to understand the relationship between the state and shrines in Pakistan, since 1947. The intention is to understand shrines, historically, as a site of interaction between the policies of state and spiritually engaged practices thereupon. The article focuses upon the shrines situated in the urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The study brings forward the essential character of Sufism generating and prevailing through the “ideologically driven,”1 “projective”2 activity, of the state that translated the “traditional patterns”3 of Sufism into a modern spiritual practice. The study would show that a kind of “invented tradition”4 emerged through the impact of the policies of the state directed towards achieving well-settled goals. The spiritual practices get affected through the projective policies of the state and the internal spiritual development moves in that projected direction. It shows further that the learned practices not only manifest the newly acquired character but also enable Sufism to negotiate and participate within state’s projective activity.