SINGULAR MUSLIM IDENTITY AND CONTROL ON SHRINES: BECOMING POST-COLONIAL MODERN IN PAKISTAN
A unique singular conception of Islam, emerging and prevailing in the twentieth century colonial Punjab, changed the relationship of the state with the customary practices at Muslim shrines. The idea of a Singular Islam, which initially emerged among varied Muslim groups, began excluding deviant pluralistic forms—which could contest the finality of prophet-hood and unity of God—and helped in imagining a “Singular Islamic identity” for the politics of All India Muslim League after 1940s. Over time, the idea became strongly entrenched in the political elite of Pakistani state after its establishment in 1947. To be considered modern, the Muslim political elite strived to develop a society where the idea of Singular Islam attached with higher-moral practices could be implemented. Through Auqaf Ordinances and powerful bureaucratic machinery, the state devised ways to control and curb deviant practices at shrines. In order to build the position, this article follows the Gramscian position of consensual process among ruling elite that reflects the contestation for the struggle of cultural hegemony. It also engages with the concept of reterritorialization in order to capture the process of renewed identification among colonial sector.
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